WAEC Biology Practical Specimen 2024/2025


WAEC Biology Practical Specimen 2024/2025: In the WAEC Biology Practical Examination for the year 2024/2025, candidates will be required to examine various specimens and utilize specific materials to conduct experiments. These experiments will test their understanding of biological concepts and practical skills. Here’s a breakdown of the specimens and materials involved:

READ ALSO: WAEC Areas of Concentration for Biology 2024/2025

Table of Contents

WAEC Biology Practical Specimen 2024/2025

The practical examination consists of several specimens, each serving a unique purpose in assessing the candidate’s knowledge of biology. To aid in their examination, candidates will also be provided with essential materials. Let’s delve into the details.

Specimen AMature fresh eggs of catfish
Specimen BFresh egg of domestic fowl (raw, with shell intact)
Specimen CPicture/model/chart of uterus containing a foetus
Specimen DLongitudinal section of ovary of pride of Barbados flower
Specimen ELeaf of pride of Barbados flower
Specimen FPanicum plant/Guinea grass (whole plant)
Specimen GCocoyam plant/Caladium plant (whole plant)
Specimen HCorm of cocoyam
Specimen JDry humus in a beaker
Specimen KMoist humus in a beaker
Specimen LRipe orange fruit (whole)
Specimen MLongitudinal section of coconut fruit
Specimen NLongitudinal section of fresh chili pepper fruit
WAEC Biology Practical Specimen 2024/2025

Essential Materials

It is essential that each candidate should be provided with the following materials:

  1. Hand lens/magnifying lens;
  2. Scalpel/razor blade/knife;
  3. Pair of forceps;
  4. Hand gloves;
  5. Spatula;
  6. Petri dish;
  7. Fehling’s solutions A and B;
  8. Iodine solution.

The WAEC Biology Practical Examination for 2024/2025 will require candidates to examine a diverse range of specimens, from biological samples like fish eggs to plant parts and soil components. The provided materials, including magnifying lenses, cutting tools, and chemical reagents, will assist candidates in conducting their experiments effectively.

Detailed Explanation of the WAEC Biology Practical Specimen 2023/2024

Specimen A – Mature Fresh Eggs of Catfish:

These eggs are from a mature catfish and serve as a specimen for examination. Catfish are known for their unique reproductive strategy, and these eggs provide an opportunity to study their reproductive biology. Candidates may observe and analyze the size, shape, and color of the eggs. Additionally, they can examine the eggs for any visible features that indicate the stage of development.

Specimen B – Fresh Egg of Domestic Fowl (Raw, with Shell Intact):

This specimen consists of a fresh egg from a domestic fowl, commonly known as a chicken. The egg is presented in its raw state, with the shell still intact. Candidates can study the external features of the egg, such as its shape, size, and color. They may also observe the shell’s texture and any markings on it. This specimen allows candidates to understand the structure and characteristics of bird eggs.

Specimen C – Picture/Model/Chart of Uterus Containing a Foetus:

Specimen C is not a physical specimen but a visual representation of a uterus containing a foetus. It serves as an educational aid to help candidates understand the structure and function of the uterus in reproduction. Candidates can use this chart or model to identify parts of the female reproductive system and learn about embryonic development.

Specimen D – Longitudinal Section of Ovary of Pride of Barbados Flower:

This specimen is a longitudinal section of the ovary of the Pride of Barbados flower. Candidates can closely examine the internal structure of the flower’s ovary, which is a female reproductive organ. They may observe ovules, potential seeds, and other structures related to plant reproduction.

Specimen E – Leaf of Pride of Barbados Flower:

Specimen E consists of a leaf from the Pride of Barbados flower. Candidates can study the leaf’s external characteristics, including its shape, size, color, and any unique features. This specimen allows candidates to explore the leaf structure of a flowering plant.

Specimen F – Panicum Plant/Guinea Grass (Whole Plant):

This specimen is the whole plant of Panicum, commonly known as Guinea grass. Candidates can examine the entire plant, including its roots, stems, leaves, and any reproductive structures like flowers or seeds. This provides insight into the morphology of a grass species.

Specimen G – Cocoyam Plant/Caladium Plant (Whole Plant):

Similar to Specimen F, this is the whole plant of either a cocoyam or Caladium. Candidates can study the entire plant, including underground storage structures like corms, leaves, stems, and any reproductive parts. This specimen offers an opportunity to understand the morphology of a tuberous plant.

Specimen H – Corm of Cocoyam:

This specimen is the corm of a cocoyam plant. Candidates can examine the corm’s external features, such as size, shape, and color. Additionally, they can explore its internal structure to understand how these underground organs store energy and nutrients.

Specimen J – Dry Humus in a Beaker:

Specimen J consists of dry humus in a beaker. Humus is organic material in soil that results from the decomposition of plant and animal matter. Candidates may examine its texture, color, and composition to understand the role of humus in soil fertility and nutrient cycling.

Specimen K – Moist Humus in a Beaker:

Similar to Specimen J, this specimen contains moist humus in a beaker. Candidates can observe the differences between dry and moist humus and understand how moisture content affects soil characteristics and plant growth.

Specimen L – Ripe Orange Fruit (Whole):

This specimen is a whole ripe orange fruit. Candidates can examine its external features, such as size, color, texture, and any visible characteristics related to fruit ripening. This specimen offers insights into the structure and attributes of a typical fruit.

Specimen M – Longitudinal Section of Coconut Fruit:

This specimen is a longitudinal section of a coconut fruit, allowing candidates to study its internal structure. They may observe the various parts of the coconut, such as the endosperm, embryo, and coconut water, providing knowledge about coconut development.

Specimen N – Longitudinal Section of Fresh Chili Pepper Fruit:

Specimen N is a longitudinal section of a fresh chili pepper fruit. Candidates can closely examine its internal structure, including seeds and placental tissues. This specimen provides insights into the anatomy of a chili pepper fruit.


What is the purpose of the WAEC Biology Practical Examination for 2024/2025?

The WAEC Biology Practical Examination for 2024/2025 aims to assess candidates’ practical skills and their understanding of biological concepts through hands-on experiments.

What specimens will be examined in the WAEC Biology Practical Examination?

The examination includes various specimens, such as mature fresh catfish eggs, fresh domestic fowl eggs, reproductive anatomy models, plant parts, and soil components. These specimens cover a wide range of biological topics.

What materials will be provided to candidates during the examination?

Candidates will be provided with essential materials, including hand lenses, cutting tools, forceps, hand gloves, spatulas, Petri dishes, Fehling’s solutions A and B, and iodine solution. These materials are crucial for conducting experiments effectively.

What is the significance of Specimen A in the examination?

Specimen A consists of mature fresh eggs of catfish, which candidates will examine to gain insights into fish reproductive biology and related concepts.

Why is Specimen F important in the examination?

Specimen F, Panicum plant (Guinea grass), is included in the examination to allow candidates to study the characteristics and structures of plants, focusing on this specific grass species.

What can candidates learn from Specimen N?

Specimen N, a longitudinal section of a fresh chili pepper fruit, offers candidates the opportunity to examine the internal structure of the fruit and possibly conduct experiments related to it.

How should candidates prepare for the WAEC Biology Practical Examination?

Candidates should familiarize themselves with the specimens and materials provided. They should practice their practical skills and review relevant biology concepts to perform well in the examination.

What safety precautions should candidates take during the practical examination?

Candidates should wear hand gloves when handling specimens and be cautious when using cutting tools. Following safety guidelines and instructions is essential to prevent accidents.

What is the purpose of using Fehling’s solutions A and B in the examination?

Fehling’s solutions A and B are chemical reagents provided for specific tests. Candidates will use these solutions to perform experiments related to the detection of reducing sugars and other chemical reactions.

What is the role of the hand lens/magnifying lens in the examination?

The hand lens/magnifying lens is used to magnify and closely examine specimens, enabling candidates to observe finer details and structures during the examination.

What are the specimens for the Biology Practical exam in WAEC 2024/2025?

The specimens for the WAEC 2024/2025 Biology examination encompass a wide array of biological materials for candidates to examine. These include mature fresh eggs of catfish (Specimen A), fresh eggs of domestic fowl with shells intact (Specimen B), a picture/model/chart of a uterus containing a foetus (Specimen C), a longitudinal section of the ovary of the pride of Barbados flower (Specimen D), a leaf of the pride of Barbados flower (Specimen E), a whole plant of Panicum, also known as Guinea grass (Specimen F), an entire Cocoyam plant or Caladium plant (Specimen G), the corm of cocoyam (Specimen H), dry humus in a beaker (Specimen J), moist humus in a beaker (Specimen K), a ripe orange fruit (Specimen L), a longitudinal section of a coconut fruit (Specimen M), and a longitudinal section of a fresh chili pepper fruit (Specimen N). These diverse specimens are designed to assess candidates’ knowledge and practical skills in various aspects of biology, from animal reproduction to plant anatomy and soil composition.



Candidates should prepare adequately to make the most of this practical examination, as it assesses their practical skills and understanding of biological concepts. With a clear understanding of the specimens and the materials at their disposal, candidates can approach the examination with confidence and perform to the best of their abilities.

Add a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Join WAEC 2024 Telegram Channel